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    Basics of Perspective Drawing

    Perspective Drawing Lessons Perspective Drawing Tutorials How to Draw in Perspective Lessons in Perspective


    Pictorial drawings.

    Freehand and instrumental. In this work the quality of line depends on the character of the object represented and the conditions under which it is seen. If it is near the observer, and has sharp, well defined edges, the lines should be well defined. If it has less sharply defined edges, or if it is remote from the observer or in shadow, its outlines should be represented by soft, broad, or broken lines. Contours of objects with smooth, even surfaces are indicated by even, narrow lines ; irregular and rough surfaces by broader, softer, or broken lines. In all instrumental work the lines should be clear and well defined.

    Light and shade.

    In both freehand and instrumental work expression by light and shade may be required. Example of rendering in light and shade.

    Theoretic perspective.

    It is expected that students will be familiar with the following terms and principles of scientific perspective, and will be able to apply them both in freehand and in instrumental work : —
    A perspective drawing is a representation of an object presenting the same appearance as the object itself. In a perspective drawing the object is conceived of as seen through a transparent plane called the picture plane. Straight lines are imagined running from all points of the object to the eye. The points where these lines pierce the picture plane are points of the perspective.
    Illustration of the picture plane. The window answers to the assumed vertical plane on which the picture is to be drawn. The dotted lines show the imaginary lines running from all points of the object to the eye.

    1. Position affects the apparent form of an object.

    Above the eye—facing and turned at 45 degrees.
    Below the eye—facing and turned at 45 degrees.

    2. Distance affects the apparent size of an object ; the further an object, is from the eye, the smaller it will appear.

    3. Lines parallel to the picture plane retain their direction in the perspective. Hence, vertical lines remain vertical, and horizontal lines parallel to the picture plane remain horizontal.

    4. Lines not parallel to the picture plane appear to converge as they recede from the eye. The point toward which any set of parallel lines converges is called the vanishing point.

    5. All horizontal lines, not parallel to the picture plane, vanish at the level of the eye. Hence, those below the level of the eye slant upward ; those above-the level of the eye slant doWnward. See cuts above.

    6. Lines perpendicular to the picture plane vanish at a point directly in front of the eye. This point is called the center of vision.

    7. All horizontals at an angle of 45° with the picture plane vanish in points at the right or left of the center of vision, and as far from it as the eye is from the picture plane.

    The above diagrams illustrate the method of representing horizontal lines vanishing at points equidistant from acv (center of vision), and at the same distance from c.v. as the eye is from the picture plane. The line of direction (from S.P. or station point to c.v.) denotes the distance of the eye from c.v. The first diagram shows how the vanishing points (vanishing point 1 and 2) and measuring points (Measuring Points 1 and 2) are placed when an object is to be drawn at 45° to the picture plane, — the second how the position and length of the horizontal lines which represent the horizontal edges of the cube are determined by the aid of the vanishing and measuring points.




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